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red algae pigments

Dhargalkar VK, Verlecar XN. Red algae are rich in calcium and sometimes are used in vitamin supplements. The presumed red algae lie embedded in fossil mats of cyanobacteria, called stromatolites, in 1.6 billion-year-old Indian phosphorite – making them the oldest plant-like fossils ever found by about 400 million years.[68]. Most red algae are also multicellular, macroscopic, marine, and reproduce sexually. For example, Batrachospermum (Fig. They are “Red” because they seem red in color mainly due to the presence of pigments phycoerythrin, a reddish pigment. The authors use a hierarchical arrangement where the clade names do not signify rank; the class name Rhodophyceae is used for the red algae. Carpospores germinate into gametophytes, which produce sporophytes. When this happens, the living cell produces a layer of wall material that seals off the plug. At one time it was believed that algae with specialized green-absorbing accessory pigments outcompeted green algae in deeper water. The most important pigment is phycoerythrin, which provides these algae with their red pigmentation by reflecting red light and absorbing blue light. W. J. Woelkerling (1990). [53], Carpospores may also germinate directly into thalloid gametophytes, or the carposporophytes may produce a tetraspore without going through a (free-living) tetrasporophyte phase. The tubular membranes eventually disappear. Pit connections and pit plugs are unique and distinctive features of red algae that form during the process of cytokinesis following mitosis. [citation needed] China, Japan, Republic of Korea are the top producers of seaweeds. Red light does not penetrate water well. Connections that exist between cells not sharing a common parent cell are labelled secondary pit connections. ", "The New Higher Level Classification of Eukaryotes with Emphasis on the Taxonomy of Protists", "Phylogenomics Reshuffles the Eukaryotic Supergroups", "Large-Scale Phylogenomic Analyses Reveal That Two Enigmatic Protist Lineages, Telonemia and Centroheliozoa, Are Related to Photosynthetic Chromalveolates", "Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree", "Analysis of Rare Genomic Changes Does Not Support the Unikont–Bikont Phylogeny and Suggests Cyanobacterial Symbiosis as the Point of Primary Radiation of Eukaryotes", "EEF2 analysis challenges the monophyly of Archaeplastida and Chromalveolata", "Assessing red algal supraordinal diversity and taxonomy in the context of contemporary systematic data", "Defining the major lineages of red algae (Rhodophyta)", "The new red algal subphylum Proteorhodophytina comprises the largest and most divergent plastid genomes known", "Evolution of Red Algal Plastid Genomes: Ancient Architectures, Introns, Horizontal Gene Transfer, and Taxonomic Utility of Plastid Markers", "Properties and Ultrastructure of Phycoerythrin From Porphyridium cruentum12", https://www.elsevier.com/books/the-fine-structure-of-algal-cells/dodge/978-0-12-219150-3, "Ultrastructure and supramolecular organization of photosynthetic membranes of some marine red algae", https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-90-481-3795-4_24, "Genome sequence of the ultrasmall unicellular red alga, "A 100%-complete sequence reveals unusually simple genomic features in the hot-spring red alga, "Gene transfer from bacteria and archaea facilitated evolution of an extremophilic eukaryote", "The first symbiont-free genome sequence of marine red alga, Susabi-nori (, "Genome structure and metabolic features in the red seaweed Chondrus crispus shed light on evolution of the Archaeplastida", "Genome of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, "Unraveling the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of an agar producing red macroalga, Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales)", "Adaptation through horizontal gene transfer in the cryptoendolithic red alga Galdieria phlegrea", "Genome Survey Sequencing and Genetic Background Characterization of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) Based on Next-Generation Sequencing", "Precise age of Bangiomorpha pubescens dates the origin of eukaryotic photosynthesis", "Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggests 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae", "ALGAE AS NUTRITION, MEDICINE AND COSMETIC: THE FORGOTTEN HISTORY, PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE TRENDS", Archaeal Richmond Mine acidophilic nanoorganisms, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Red_algae&oldid=997563824, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from January 2011, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [47] The concentration of photosynthetic products are altered by the environmental conditions like change in pH, the salinity of medium, change in light intensity, nutrient limitation etc. Some examples of species and genera of red algae are: Red algal morphology is diverse ranging from unicellular forms to complex parenchymatous and non- parenchymatous thallus. Because apical growth is the norm in red algae, most cells have two primary pit connections, one to each adjacent cell. Red algae are also classified into some species like dulse, Irish moss, coralline algae or laver, etc. The major photosynthetic products include floridoside (major product), D‐isofloridoside, digeneaside, mannitol, sorbitol, dulcitol etc. [39] They also have the most gene-rich plastid genomes known. Red algae (Rhodophyta) are sharply distinguished from all other plants with respect to anatomy, life history, and the occurrence of certain pro- teinaceous pigments. "Enzyme-enhanced extraction of antioxidant ingredients from red algae Palmaria palmata". But an obscure and ecologically successful group of algae, known as cryptophytes, have evolved pigments that capture light where chlorophyll cannot, Dudycha and colleagues report in … Tetrasporangia may be arranged in a row (zonate), in a cross (cruciate), or in a tetrad. Tetrasporophytes may also produce a carpospore, which germinates to form another tetrasporophyte. [24] Both marine and freshwater taxa are represented by free-living macroalgal forms and smaller endo/epiphytic/zoic forms, meaning they live in or on other algae, plants, and animals. realDB: A genome and transcriptome resource for the red algae (phylum Rhodophyta). [72] Where a big portion of world population is getting insufficient daily iodine intake, a 150 ug/day requirement of iodine is obtained from a single gram of red algae. [46] Floridean starch (similar to amylopectin in land plants), a long term storage product, is deposited freely (scattered) in the cytoplasm.

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